Here is my report from chapter 2. This chapter is about architectural instinctive, which never changes with centuries. It was the same with the early people’s approach. It starts from the Stone Age. For example, early people used hills in punctuation, they used caves to gouge and protect themselves from predators which mean that architecture has already begun, people were using it. People were determining boundaries of area -with different approaches from now- and separating them from other ones. This attempts are architectures’ bases. There are many samples that show us architecture was exist in Stone Age, unless some people may think architecture started at Neolithic period with agriculture and sedentary life. Kastoff asserts that, architecture starts with people’s existence in the world. Nature also has architecture if you think the architectures’ bases. Earth has many directions that are endless. There is rivers and ridges to divide these large peaces, to have balance. This balance relates with architecture. Architecture can’t be perceived without thinking it’s environment. We can think the environment as an architecture. With Neolithic period, people started to use the environment with agriculture. However, humans were experiencing the earth, the architecture since they were created.
We can assume architecture as a shelter: protecting us, a place to live,work, shop… People are dwelling with using architecture, with making a piece of earth meaningful for them, with differentiating bulks according to their needs -that impulse is instinctive-. But architecture has more meaning than being shelter.
In Stone Age, human made Terra Amata that is in France and found some tools in some parts such as workspace, hearth while creating a protective area, hunter gatherers. They produced closed spaces with regional materials for example stone, wood. Former human were making a kind of representation, expressing themselves with murals. We can say, murals are consequences of humans’ desire and they are also dwelling. Lascaux caves, we see their act on dwelling, Murals are an instrument to their intellectual connection to the world. Murals can relate with religion, hunting… We can see their daily activities, social organization and their perception of life.
With Neolithic period we see next step of design and also with agriculture, a lot of thing changed. Human passed to settled life, produced food in the ground, and built houses. With agriculture, human started to settle down, because crops need time to grow. They started to be interested in weather conditions for their crops -they need rain, hot weather…- This dwelling also shaped humans social structure. They give role to women and men. Women were obligated to take care of the house, men were obligated to hunt. Areas divided, parts specialized. We begin to see a sense of architectural spaces. Dividing spaces with wall, new spaces with different function. Monumantel architecture has started hence of this period. They started to build stone monuments: menhir, tombs… They started to create places of organizational level, they created a new kind of understanding and concentration of creating new place. Stonehenge is a pattern of this organization. It consists of vertical and horizontal stones, that create a circular regulation.
The urban revalution starts with Sumerian myth that is moon-god Nanna at Mesopotamia. When the word “civilization” researched we see the relation between civilized and city. With humans’ sedentary, the “civilization” (the art of living in towns- Kostoff) started.