This chapter focuses on the period of when feudal system got stronger. Popes got power and had a role on decisions about the city such as urban design and regulation. At this times, architecture was directed by the religion. We can also understand this from their public structures. The most important structures were religious structures.

They made radical alterations, such as re-designing the city. They constructed new streets and layout the former stress according to new ones. That illustrates that, the changes in social life affects the environment. They re-planned the urban areas where church was placed. Basilicas (the religious structures) were the focus points such as cores. Re-designed residential areas built to provide the demands of growth population. The pope made decisions about the amount of budget that could be spend for architecture.

Rome had a min street that works as a spine. Most important changes occurred at the ends of this street. There is a part on the book that is about Y planning which used by Rome and contribute to the city planning. Y planning is meeting of three streets at an equal interval. Victories also contributed to new city roads. Campidoglio’s target was leading visitors movement in a deliberated axial movement. That planned road goes to senators Palace.



16th century was transition period in architectural sense. Former styles disappeared with modern approaches. Modernized tradition of ancient Rome also used in these years. Architects started to investigate new forms and styles with the help of the technology. Gothic style that has oriels, tracery, correlation, crenellation and tall multi lighted windows  was also appeared in these years.

Leone Battista Alberti who was one of the leading architects of the renaissance and Roman architecture was designer of S.Andrea. He designed a barrel vault over the nave that opens to the smaller spaces.

Alberti called Villa Medicea that had Ionic entrance porch “West front of the Parthenon”. In 16th century, some people still maintain constructing with classical attitudes (using Roman and Greek architecture’s styles) and Villa Medicea is one of them.

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Gothic architecture’s targets changed with time. First Gothic habits were founded on individual elements having their own character. Every detail had their own character and Gothic architecture depended on internal correlations. However, those Gothic habits were thrown out. Architects started to design the structure and make a unitary plan. Resulting in, certain rules began to emerge in Gothic architecture.

Hagia Sophia (532-537) deploys the solidity of Roman’s domes with taking daylight in through a perforated clim. Those openings both provides light to the interior and creates a mystical place.

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With 20th century, modernism that consist of primary forms and colors uniting several standards started to shape the environment and the architecture. De Stijl which is a modern movement for architectural space purified from ornaments and comprised abstract geometries. Visual diversity also got importance with modernism. People focused on investigating new forms with the help of the technology while trying to create structures that have their own character. I think that, that is the most important thing in architecture and all architects should create their personal language to communicate with the environment. Modernism meets that requirement. Spaces take their shape according to humans needs. Consequently, cities started to have their own character and diversity of cities increased.


This week, I am going to write a report about Rome. Rome culture is a mixing culture. It is the solution of movement of armies. They mixed their culture with existing culture of the land that they became owner.

They were planning the city according to the Hellenistic style. Internal space was important for Romans. Lintel, which was created while imitating Greeks is one of the building system of Romans. The space enclosed with linear elements. Vault was copied from Etruscans. They give importance to ornaments more than Greek architecture. While we compare Romans and Greeks architecture, we can say that Romans give more importance to ornaments. Function cared in the second. They used order not to create a level of enclosure, to create decorative elements.  The infrastructure of city planning was developed. While creating city planning, they thought how the city is going to grow. They give importance to transportation, sewer system and defencing.

While designing the city with Hellenistic style, they were also considered the topography. The structures positioned to the land according to the lands properties. In their city, there was public spaces and markets which was constructed according to their well organized plan that was based on two axes: cardus and decumanus. These axes were cutting each other on meeting points which were forum. In forum, they were discussing social and religious subjects, and having political, economic events.  Aqueducts were regulating the topographies instability and also they were introducing water to the cities. Defensing the city was their aim and it was needed. That is why they used walls to create enclosure and provide security to the city and they were created different interpretations in defense techniques while using walls.

Roman architecture has three kind of structure typology: civil, religious parts and bridge works. Their religious temple was copied from Greek Akropol that has a portico and closed cella. The public areas consisted of different kinds of rooms.

Roman domus was a typical higher middle class house in Rome. The court was still there, but there was variation of court. Upper class dwell in Villas that are not in the city, in the country. In Villas, we see Peristyle use of the columns. They have private gardens. Village and domus has common elements. Insula was the building where lower classes dwell. They were apartments. In the ground floor, there were shops.


In the fourth century, Greek became overpopulated. Alexander the Great who was famous king of Greek people consolidated an army had many victories. Many people that are previously unemployed started to work as a soldier. Alexander the Great expanded Greek’s land to Anatolia. This expansion changed the way of Greeks dwelling and concluded the Classical period. With this enlarging of territories, Greece started to rule alien people who had already shaped their environment with their culture. That also effected Greeks way of creating statues. After expansion athletic human figures did not created as before, artists started to work on the concepts that were defeat and anguish.

The style of the architecture changed and that called Hellenistic style. It was created with inspiring from old and changing the old with the light of new demands. For example: the axial formalization of Hellenistic architecture adopted from the Akropolis. In the old times, there were distinction between column and wall. With hellenistic style, we see engagement. Apollo temple, that was located on mountain and created while considering to design while making expressive effects is first piece of the new architectural order called Corinthian. In this approach, decorative purposes was more important than functions. While they were giving different roles to Ionic and Doric columns, they were losing the main target of creating columns. Ornament can be considered to cover up the real, losing the meaning.

At the Hellenistic style, Greeks suggested a new column that is out of the common to the space: corinthian. The position of that singular column was also a new situation.

Greeks started to state the columns closer and cella columns became figurative since they were acting as an ornament and gave their “carrying roof” and also “load bearing” role to the walls. With this changes, architects started to experience possibilities with variations for themselves on the columnar traditions.

Hellenistic temple which is to Apollo at Didyma built at Miletus. With improvements of Bassae, they had architectural achievements. They had reform on the ionic order. Ionic column changed its shape: became taller and thinner.


Ancient Greece civilization had advanced knowledge about many different subjects such as astronomy, mathematics and architecture. At this time, I will talk about their architectural approach while creating spaces.

Greek people had different approaches while creating enclosure. For example, they covered Piraeus with wall after Persian invasion. We can say, they create enclosure to differentiate their space, protecting Piraeus with bordering and separation. Athens, that was the largest Greek city were assuming that, they are the champions of Greece. Greek houses were looking inward as the ones in Mesopotamia. The rooms  usually built around the court. In someway, they were differentiating rooms according to function. For example, Andron was the room for men. It was located at the corner of the house to have more sunlight from two sides. There was a low raised platform around the walls for men where they were drinking while discussing. This platform can be assumed as a wall which used to create a space, not for enclosure. Pastas that was dividing the room was long and narrow room, located north of the court. With plan organizations, Megaron started to disappear. Colonies had orthogonal planning which creates dynamic interrelationship between building environment and the landscape such as Egypt. Because they were needing intelligibility for newcomers to understand the city easily.

Miletus who were creating the city according to orthogonal plan had sophisticated use of grid because of Hippodamos – grids inventor -. The city was at the western side of the Anatolia and had three kind of structures for farmers, soldiers and artisans. They create residential area with order. Agora was the marketplace of the city. People were having commercial activities at there. Stoa was the street that is next to Agora. It was sheltered but not enclosed and defined Agora. In Miletus, Agora and stoa became an element of total design.

Greeks did not apply totally enclosure to their constructions. They defined spaces with repetition of colonnades. People can enter the space between columns.

Romans remodeled the Great Agora. Their purpose was to achieve total enclosure. They created formal gates at axes and differentiated public spaces with enclosure from outside.

The Mycenaeon City had Skias, which had really different form for past-Mycenaeon Greek architecture. Skias was a round building. They defined central space by the columns. There were Bauleuterion which had rectangular form. The walls covered with platform and the center differentiated for the speaker. The position of the speaker was planned according to the needs: audiences should be able to hear the talker. They create spaces and differentiate spaces according to their purposes.


With Bronze Age, people start to built more complex structures instead megalithic architecture of Stoneage and that periods monumental structures. In Bronze Age, peoples purpose was urbanization. They used natural landscape to determine the boundries of the building environment. Landscape shaped their cities and their organizations. Egyptians also used nature while building their environment. When we compare this period with old periods, we can say that, people start to find different ways to deal with problems. For example, in river villages they built moats against floods. They started to dwell with different ways.

In Greek, each temple represents one god. They had monumental structures. In Greek structures, they pay attention to perception of perspective. The viewpoint is important for their temples. They do not have directional entrance gates. They have columns where you can enter from using the gaps between.

Terrace is like basement for Greeks. The terrace surrounds the building.

The structures of Greek have oblique direction, so observer can see two facades at the same time. They had private propriety, and they were not have army. Everyone had responsibility to protect the city.


Crete, that is the largest island in Greece and at southern part of the Aegean Sea is a place where sophisticated class lived. They had knowledge about architecture and art. Maybe being a large island is the reason of Crete cultures great power on seamanship. When population got crowded, Cretan people were started to migrate Aegean Sea.

We see that, most of the time ancient people were using art and architecture for policy. However, Minoans produced art more elegant rather than propaganda. The biggest difference from Minoans to other ancient people can be the reason of making art and architecture. Minoans developed a visual art culture which seems that is for their pleasure. Their architecture and visual art looks modern.

Mycenaeans who had palace called Pylos considered as the first Greeks unlike Minoans because of speaking Greek. The plan of Pylos does not exactly matching with megaron. In megaton, you go through the corridor and corridor that increases the privacy. We can say that, there is a hierarchy. In Pylos, you enter from outside to most private part of the structure that was royal couples living area. They were defencing city with cyclopean masonry that changed in time. Pylos has two entrance for common people (afrom north lower town) and palace entrance (at the southwest corner).  Palace entrance also has reinforce security in addition to the natural landscape obstacle. The difference of entrances created while thinking the hierarchical importance. Palace is more important and it should be protected with more strict sense. They also benefit from the natural landscape according to their needs and made obstacles useful.

Mycaene citadel can be assumed similar with Tiryns. It was at between two hills. They covered city with walls, because they have to protect unlike Minoans. Minoans were in island, so there was no threat. That is why they do not covered the city with walls. It also changed their visual architecture. They did not need propaganda. They had a tomb called the Treasury of Atreus and it was located at the center of the city part, where burials were. There were beehive shaped structures that is one of the most significant architecture example of the Bronze Age with long passage, leading up to the circular tomb. These toms are same with the Neolithic passage graves. This is the similarity between Egyptian and Cretan architecture.

Knossos was the major city of Crete. The landscape divides building environment and the natural environment with strong bounds. Mycenaeans had to provide their city, and that also reflected to their architecture. They had central city organization around the rectangular courtyard.  Later, Greeks inspired from Knossos city organization on polis with hilltop placement, and the organization of public spaces,streets… They had an organizational principle, which started at center and getting fragmented and can be improved according to requirements through the outside.