ARCH 221: ROME- CAPUT MUNDI

This week, I am going to write a report about Rome. Rome culture is a mixing culture. It is the solution of movement of armies. They mixed their culture with existing culture of the land that they became owner.

They were planning the city according to the Hellenistic style. Internal space was important for Romans. Lintel, which was created while imitating Greeks is one of the building system of Romans. The space enclosed with linear elements. Vault was copied from Etruscans. They give importance to ornaments more than Greek architecture. While we compare Romans and Greeks architecture, we can say that Romans give more importance to ornaments. Function cared in the second. They used order not to create a level of enclosure, to create decorative elements.  The infrastructure of city planning was developed. While creating city planning, they thought how the city is going to grow. They give importance to transportation, sewer system and defencing.

While designing the city with Hellenistic style, they were also considered the topography. The structures positioned to the land according to the lands properties. In their city, there was public spaces and markets which was constructed according to their well organized plan that was based on two axes: cardus and decumanus. These axes were cutting each other on meeting points which were forum. In forum, they were discussing social and religious subjects, and having political, economic events.  Aqueducts were regulating the topographies instability and also they were introducing water to the cities. Defensing the city was their aim and it was needed. That is why they used walls to create enclosure and provide security to the city and they were created different interpretations in defense techniques while using walls.

Roman architecture has three kind of structure typology: civil, religious parts and bridge works. Their religious temple was copied from Greek Akropol that has a portico and closed cella. The public areas consisted of different kinds of rooms.

Roman domus was a typical higher middle class house in Rome. The court was still there, but there was variation of court. Upper class dwell in Villas that are not in the city, in the country. In Villas, we see Peristyle use of the columns. They have private gardens. Village and domus has common elements. Insula was the building where lower classes dwell. They were apartments. In the ground floor, there were shops.

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